1. the Arabian horse
Despite the fact that the breed does not originate from our country, but from the Arabian Peninsula, the breeding of our Polish Arabians has gained worldwide fame. It is the Polish Arabian horse breeding that belongs to one of the oldest in the world. Its beginning is estimated at 1795, but since then due to uprisings and wars the breeding of this breed was repeatedly destroyed. However the first Polish Arabian Stud Book was published only in 1926.
Arabian horses are animals of extraordinary endurance and rapid regeneration of strength after great effort. They are brave and intelligent with a large willingness to work under saddle and the ability to carry a relatively large load. They are long-lived horses. They delight with their appearance, the so-called Arabian bouquet, which consists of a small head with a broad forehead, beautiful large eyes, small ears and a straight or slightly concave profile. A long, swan-like neck, a strong short back (they have one fewer pair of ribs than horses of other breeds) and a rump with a high set tail carried proudly upwards.
The most famous breeding center in Poland is Janów Podlaski Stud. Established in 1817, it was severely damaged during World War II - survived and later experienced a boom in breeding. At the annual Arabian horse auctions (since 2001 called "Pride of Poland") Arabian horses are sold not only from this stud, but also from Micha³ów Stud or Bia³ka Stud. In the 80s of the 20th century the first price record was set, when the stallion El Paso (bred in Janów) was sold for one million dollars. In 2008 this record was broken by the mare Kwestura (bred by Micha³ów Stud), which was sold for 1,125 million euro to the Middle East. In 2015 another record was set - the Janów-bred mare Pepita was sold for 1.4 million euro.
2. the Silesian horse
This is another breed of horses that originated in our country. It was developed on the territory of Upper and Lower Silesia. Thanks to their conformation they are perfect as harness and saddle horses. They have very strong, well muscled body with high set neck, straight or slightly humpbacked head. The limbs are short, strong but also very powerful. Wide chest and back make horses of this breed excellent in harness sport. The colouring of these horses is most often grey, dark bay or bay. Occasionally, there are chestnuts.
One of the most famous places in our country where these beautiful, strong horses are bred is the Stallion Stud in Książ (near Wa³brzych). It is located in historic stable and carriage buildings near the Książ castle. It was established in 1947 and until now it has been the main and only state center breeding Silesian horses in Poland. Currently, there are over 100 horses (90 stallions and 40 mares - protected breeds).
3. Polish horse
It is a strong, well-muscled pony of rather primitive appearance. His height does not exceed 140 cm at the withers. Horses of this breed are only found in a mousey coat with a dark stripe on the back. It is characterized by high resistance to environmental conditions and low requirements. He is resistant to diseases and long-lived. Thanks to these features he is perfect as a working horse for light field works. He is also used as a sled, riding horse and in hippotherapy.
Some sources say that its ancestor is the already extinct tarpan (the last one died in a zoo in Moscow in 1887), however, nowadays it is believed that Konik polski has only some of its features. Today Polish Koniki horses are bred in four stud farms in Poland (e.g. Sierakow, Racot, Dobrzyniewo) and in an experimental center of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Popielno. There, on an area of 320 ha, open breeding of this breed is conducted. It has also become a symbol of Roztoczanski National Park and its silhouette is inscribed in the logo.
4. Polish cold-blooded horse
This is a small to medium sized horse bred in Poland in the hasty type. They are genetically similar to horses of the Ardennes breed. They are used mainly for harnessing, working and in modern times for export or slaughter purposes.
Among Polish cold-blooded horses we distinguish 4 types:
- sokólskie horses - strong, usually chestnut in colour with light mane and tail
- Sztum horses - very heavy, working mainly in the lowest walk - trot
- Lidzbark-Warmiñski horses - of big body mass with admixture of blood of North Swedish horses
- łowicko sochaczewskie horses - with large share of genes of Ardennes and Belgian horses, most often chestnut.
Among the above mentioned types, the Sokól and Sztum horses are considered native breeds. Their breeding takes place in Ketrzyn, where every year the "Cold-Blooded Horse Days" take place. One of the event's points is a show of stallions, sometimes even a dozen placed one next to another, expertly speaking in the so-called "railing", which unanimously make circles in a trot and are driven by only two grooms.
5. the Wielkopolski horse
This is the all-rounder in the type of English half-blood. It has a noble head with a straight profile, clearly marked withers and long, oblique shoulders. His compact body, deep chest, slightly sloping croup and good muscling make him an ideal saddle horse. He comes in all conformations and reaches a maximum height of 170 cm at the withers.
The breed was created in 1962 as a result of cross-breeding with local Thracian and East Prussian horses. The biggest stud farms breeding these horses are located in Liski, Racot and Postadowo. Currently, there are more than 7000 horses in the stud book.
(Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator)