Liberum veto

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The basic principle in medicine is "first, do no harm". This principle is based on the assumption that nature is wise and man's correcting the natural course of things can do more harm than good.

When the working people came to power they began to introduce the only rule they knew: you have to work. No wonder, if the people became deputies, after all in their heads was only the principle, that they should work more, produce more, the more the better. The more coal the better, the more cars the better, the more bricks the better. The more the better, the better the work. And since the work in parliament is to issue regulations, the parliamentary people began to make lots of regulations to show how diligently they are working for the fatherland. The more regulations he issues, the better he works, that is, the better his service to the fatherland. And individual parties or groups now brag about their work by giving more and more regulations produced. Which leads to a legal nightmare. This legal nightmare means that no one is able to read these laws, let alone apply them. And so this industrious working people, this time in the role of MPs, has led to a situation where everyone is guilty. St. Paul's quote from the Bible comes to mind: "The law is not based on faith, but (it says) he who fulfills the regulations will live by them. From this curse of the Law Christ has redeemed us..." (Galatians 3.12-13)

Liberum veto is a parliamentary rule that allows only one member of parliament to veto the introduction of some new law or regulation. Liberum veto, or safeguard against the introduction of legislation that harms even the smallest parliamentary group. The purpose of the liberum veto was the opposite of the principle of increasing the number of regulations: to prevent the introduction of stupid regulations, so that individual political groups would not be able to bribe MPs to pass a certain law, because there would always be at least one, but not bribed MP, who would save the case and say no. Perhaps this rule guarded against proposing legislation that would protect the interest of only one political party: it had to be in everyone's interest or not at all. It should also be taken into account that in the democracy of the nobility MPs were not "working people", who had it in their heads to create huge amounts of papers or get rich on parliamentary privileges, but members of parliament, who were MPs for honor, not money.

Nevertheless, the liberum veto was criticized by almost all wise men under communism, socialism, democracy or other people's governments as a cause detrimental and losing the state. But finally an end came to this parliamentary quirk and the smell of political modernity reached Poland.

In 1764, thanks to Tsarina Catherine II and the Czartoryski family, who together put Stanisław August Poniatowski on the Polish throne, a clever maneuver was made which circumvented the liberum veto principle by introducing voting in confederated groups, where the majority of votes counted. Well, now our friends from the East and West could manipulate the Sejm laws as they wished, because it was always possible to generate some majority of MPs, which for money, honors or out of fear approved the bill our friends needed. And so already in 1764, the law on the usefulness of stationing Russian troops in Poland was approved, as well as the previously unrecognized titles of All-Russia tsarina Catherine II (what gave a chance to territorial claims of Russia to the Russian lands) and the title of King Frederick II of Prussia (whose grandfather had earlier "gushed" Prussia to Poland by self-proclaiming himself king in Prussia). Since then the deputies of the majority sejm became "in the democratic majority" agents representing the interests of the rulers of Prussia or Russia, sometimes Austria. A few years later in 1773 it was the "democratically acting majority Sejm" that approved the Partition Act of the first partition of Poland! Of course, a few MPs objected, but the principle of liberum veto was no longer in force and this oddity was handled very well by the Sejm Speaker, Adam Poniński (after the partition rewarded by the Tsar with the title of Prince, to which he later added the title of Chevalier de l'Orient et du Bouclier d'Or in the Masonic lodge Parfait Silence).

The next sejm was a piece of cake, the majority did what needed to be done and the agents of our friends from the east and west were able to keep order. Admittedly, there were some non-modern deputies, who still had the liberum veto in their heads, but the second partition of Poland in 1793 (the Grodno Sejm, with a majority, yes, of course, for which deputies were elected from lists of candidates provided by the tsarina, in a modern way, so that the people did not get confused by searching for candidates from no-one knows where).

And then the third partition of Poland in 1795 (without the consent of the Sejm, because Poland no longer existed) did away with it and the problem of creating laws also for Poles was taken on by the rulers of Prussia, Russia and Austria.

The problem of liberum veto, criticized by various wise men, either communist or democratic, was solved.

These wise men, however, still cannot explain how in a strange and inexplicable way, during the period of liberum veto, Poland managed to create laws and govern its own country for hundreds of years without the help of foreign powers.

(Translated with


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